The precious map of a century ago, the folklore full of fireworks was stringed
A century ago, Kyoto Sinosa, Kyoto, Japan, was pleased with the richness and cuteness of the traditional customs of Chinese traditional customs. It also regretted some traditional folk customs that slowly disappeared due to social transformation. idea. This is the “Beijing Customs Map”, which has been introduced in China for the first time. They made fine maps, observed and presented Beijing customs in the early 20th century, and also connected the life of the past and the present.
There were 117 pictures in the color version of the “Beijing Customs Map”, of which the chapter of “years” concentratedly presented the main year’s customs of the Beijing people at that time, so that today we have a glimpse of the background color of the people’s lives a century ago.
During the Dazheng period, the interest of looking forward to the Chinese style has become a fashionable lifestyle for Japanese intellectuals. Many literati and celebrities have traveled to China many times and have intimate contact with Chinese culture. In the 1920s, Aoki Masaki, a Sinologist in Kyoto, Japan, traveled to China three times and studied Yanjing in order to “understand China as China”. Although the Western learning was strong in the east, the Chinese movement was still unable to change the bumpy national movement under the torrent of history. However, when Aoki Aoki felt a mildness when he felt the people and culture of modern China. Out of resonance with the nature of Chinese culture, he was pleased with the richness and cuteness of the traditional customs of Chinese customs, and also regretted some traditional folk customs that slowly disappeared due to social transformation. Essence From 1925 to 1926, with the funding of Northeast University in Japan, Aoki planned themes and hired Chinese painter Liu Yannian to draw. After repeated modifications, the map not only carefully recorded the Beijing customs at that time, but also incorporated the rich character’s expression and the background environment full of time and space characteristics. Therefore, these paintings with distinctive scenes are more true and human. The map also shows some details that people are accustomed to mentioned in the text at the time, and provided important evidence for today’s understanding of the past.
Sacrifice stove god
However, Aoki’s plan to compose paintings into a book did not realize until decades later. On the basis of Chinese scholar Uchidov’s explanation, the ordinary Japanese agency has published the monochrome and color version of the “Beijing Custom Map”. Not long ago, the colored version of “Beijing Customs Map”, which was published for the first time in my country, had a total of 117 pictures. The map system involved in the annual customs is mainly concentrated in the chapter of the “year old”, and other chapters occasionally have scattered evidence. In the years, the vulgar maps have shown the main annual activities of Beijing people in family space and social space at that time. Through these fireworks, we can review the Beijing years that has changed then.
God of Firecrackers
Menlian Spring God
The unchanged logic of life is contained in the customs. We may not need to pursue the appearance customs of thousands of years ago, but we should always adhere to the spiritual core that makes the year of “year flavor”
Under the appearance of the ups and downs of Zhang Lan, the old Beijing Customs that Qingsi Zheng’er outlines people’s compatible lifestyle and the wisdom of relaxed life. The customs of different cultures and different beliefs are integrated into the customs, which is a collective appeal to cater to the old welcoming and prayer. Family members participated in the worship of God’s ancestors, which not only reiterated the ethical order of long -term and inferiority, but also strengthened the family concept of the same ancestor of the same ancestors, but also enhanced each other’s emotional connection. Welcome to the new year, visiting the temple fair, people have completed their social exchanges with relatives and friends in public space with festive space. The order and human situation within the family and community are effectively maintained in the age. At the same time, the large -scale annual activities are also a carnival for the participation of the whole people. The traditional social levels are strictly standardized, and the people’s lives follow the rules. Through the ritual of the stove, people have entered the time of resignation and welcoming the new, and a kind of mass carnival atmosphere that breaks the rhythm of monotonous daily life began to spread. After a rich adjustment of the customs, people have been relieved in the carnival, and they can successfully enter the rhythm of life in the new year. It can be seen that the people’s life always contains self -consistent logic.
Fang Dian New Year
The pictures of this version of the Lantern Festival are from the “Beijing Customs Map”, [Japan] Aoki Masao, Liu Yannian, Oriental Publishing House
In the process of historical development, people’s life and psychological world must continue to change. Traditional New Year’s Day has both inheritance and changes in the new survival space. When the Spring Festival couplet was sold through supermarkets or e -commerce, when the family reunited to enjoy the big dinner, when WeChat worshiped the New Year for the New Year for the New Year for the New Year, the collective emotional needs were still there. Self -consistent life logic is still running under the package of new clothes. We may not need to pursue the appearance of the appearance of thousands of years ago, but we should always adhere to the spiritual core of the “flavor of the year”. The reason why the year is because it contains collective wishes. This wish is family reunion, material rich, and healthy and safe; it is because of the common feelings. Order. The reason why we are us is precisely because of many public culture like “year” silently shaped our group cultural identity and national character. (Liu Qian)
(The author of this edition is a doctoral student at the Institute of Folk Studies at East China Normal University)
【Lunar Moon Painting Shed】
After the fifteenth month of the lunar month, there will be a temporary support for a shed or a break -up new year painting in the bustling streets or borrowed shops.
Entering the lunar month, various annual ritual activities have come, and New Year painting has become one of the must -buy New Year goods. At this time, the township dealers sold some rough painters along the street. After the fifteenth month of the lunar month, a temporary support of a shed or a break -ups in the bustling streets will appear in the bustling streets, that is, “painting sheds”. In the first half of the 20th century, there were fewer sheds, and it was only near the flyover. Most of the sheds are paintings with fine willow youlter. The patterns are mostly flowers, birds, landscapes, maids and baby plays, and opera legends. There are also places to sell kites, stalls selling thin flowers and “Shuchun” door. Kite is the style of the time in the Beijing New Year. There are countless types and vivid shapes. It is said that the kite was once the event of the eight -flag children’s competition and one of the entertainment in the Chinese New Year. Therefore, there is a constant stream of people buying a kite. Selling fine flowers is a fine flower jewelry and butterfly velvet balls made of silk, lantern, paper, wax and other materials and sold in two feet of two feet of carton. They are loved by children and women in the market. At the beginning of each month of the poor literati, the red and yellow paper posts such as “Book Spring” and “Borrowing Paper Books” such as “Book of Paper” and other words were posted in front of the market. The Spring Festival couplet may be written in public or at home. Generally, the content of “loyalty is long, poetry is long, poetry and books are successful”. After the twenty -five lunar month, Shuchun’s business was getting busy and selling well.
【Sacrifice Stove God】
At the time of sending the stove, people began to summarize the gains and losses of the past year, and they were temporarily escaped from the norms of the gods.
According to the northern customs, the stove god, which is the most close to the people, will report to the Jade Emperor to report the good and evil merits of the world for one year on the 23rd of the lunar month, and return to the world after seven days. In order to allow the stove god to “say good things”, when sending the stove, the stove should be removed, and the stove gods are provided at the table, and various sacrifices such as sugar and beans are served. Women do not sacrifice stoves are special customs in Beijing. Therefore, the maid stands outside the door, and the hostess hiding in the inner room calls for the young children who worshiped the male elders in a dress in front of the sacrifice of the fascinating shrine. After worship, people burned the old idols or “stove horse” with the “stove” and the paper ingot, and sent the stove king to heaven. At this time, entering the New Year’s Preparation of New Year’s Eve, there have been many street vendors selling new products such as new clothes and toys on the market. People have gradually suspended their work in the imitation of the gods. The school is on vacation, the theater “seal the platform”, and the government “seal”. Sending the stove actually means that the end of the year is gradually coming, and the supervision of the stove god that year has basically ended. People began to summarize the gains and losses of the past year, and they can temporarily escape from the norms of the gods -a national carnival will from noisy from noisy. The sound of firecrackers began to brew. No wonder Lao She would say, “The new year is almost the rehearsal of the New Year.”
【Plot of God of Firecrackers】
In the ceremony of people’s welcoming the ceremony, it is the firecracker -to take the disaster and drive the auspicious meaning.
Firecrackers should be the most noticeable thing in the New Year. Since the sacrifice stove, the gods (such as the god of the stove, the god of wealth, the god of blessing, the god, the god, the god of joy, etc.) have returned to the Tiangong, and no longer ask the world. As of the coming of the New Year, the stove god and other gods once again “fell auspiciousness in the lower realm.” In the ceremony of people’s welcoming the ceremony, the firecracker was the firecracker -to take the disaster and drive auspiciousness. As far as children are concerned, it is more entertaining to put firecrackers. “Girls love flowers and boys”. When the boy was under the guardian of the adult, he held the incense and ignited the “two kicks” and “hanging whip”. The other hand did not forget to cover his ears, which was quite childlike. The ceremony of the god of God was held in front of the heaven and earth table or the god table, hosted by the elders at home. The owner worshiped the appetizer and worshiped, and at different times, he took off the idols on the table with paper ingot and other things. The pagoda -shaped tributary on the god table is the honey supply. It is a snack made of flour. It can be customized from the temple view of Baiyun Guan and then sent to the door by the temple view of the god sacrifice. After the filling festival, people will give each other to each other, called “sending the confession”. After welcoming the gods, you must go out to complete the worship ceremony, and then worship the temple, the parents, and congratulate the New Year with the ceremony of respecting the ancestors of God.
【Gate Lianchun God】
When people brought back the Spring Festival couplet and idols from the Spring Shop and the god paper stalls, they also brought the auspicious and hopes to home
On the first day of the New Year, people walked out of their houses and went to relatives and friends, “He New Year.” When you meet, you must follow the ceremony and say “New Jubilee”. Because women cannot go out from the first to the fifth day of the first year, everyone who goes out to visit relatives and friends in the painting is all men. They are either to be in the elders, or in charge of the new year, or before resigning, everyone has a smile, friendly and humble. Behind it, a pair of golden gourds gods with a pair of Baojiabuke and a spring couplet with “Ruiri Zhilan Light Armor, Spring Wind Tang Zhe Zhenjia”, a row of lintel is used to invite to quote The red hollow “hanging money”. The rich colors complement each other, rendering a picture of resigning and welcoming the new. When Liang Shiqiu recalled his childhood, he said, “What you want to get in your heart, write it out and draw it on the wall, as if the Ruye abacus has been realized!” When Huichun and the idols and idols, they also brought the auspiciousness and hopes to home.
Putting the Spring Lianmen God is an indispensable ceremony activity in the New Year. This is related to the long -standing spiritual beliefs of the Chinese people. There is a record of “Gate, Shou Ye” in “Guangya Shi Yan III”. For ordinary houses, doors are the boundary between the external world and the world in the home. The ancients believed that the sacred objects were placed on the door to obtain the ancestors, the gods of the gods and the owner. In order to protect the house, the ancients painted patterns or characters on a pair of peaches and wooden boards to make “peach runes” hanging at the door. Later At the door of the house. In Hu Haoran’s words, “Sanuting, Lingkai Hanghu” phrase said this custom. With the development of history, the image of civil and military officials, historical heroes, and other images have also become the god gods, becoming a symbol for the people to pray for good luck. The change of the image and function of the door god is the evidence of the secularization of the door god belief, and it is also a reflection of the people’s daily life needs.
【Fangdian New Year】
From the first day to the fifteenth day of the first month, the Temple Fair in Beijing held the largest temple fair
Fangdian is located in Liulician Dian outside Beijing Heping Gate. Lili Factory brought together commercial goods in the early days of the Ming Dynasty. During the Qing Dynasty, it gradually became an important cultural market for buying and selling calligraphy and painting. There are folk belief venues such as Fire Temple, Luzu Temple, Land Temple, and Land Temple near the factory Dadian. Therefore, every day from the first day to the fifteenth day of the first month, the Temple Club held the largest temple fair in Beijing. “Emperor Jingshi Ji Ji Sheng” recorded the lively scene at this time: “Department Stores Get, Lantern Glory, Ten Thousand sheds, Jade Shaxis, Qianmen Liaison, Book Filling, Baowan Town Street, and Qinlou, and Qinlou. Chu Pavilion is full of singing, BMW incense car tourists. “The factory has Haiwang Village Park in the factory, which is a place for children to play children, such as children, windmills and light balloons, and snacks such as sugar gourds Jia’s products. At this time, the open -air tea table is also very lively. Among them are children who visit the temple fair with their parents, tea guests who have or cigarette or cigarettes, and young women with gorgeous clothes, and tea service. Torter between the tea tables distributed like Jingtian. In the picture, the people in Beijing are new and old, and there are people wearing western -style clothing, and there are not a few people who have braids and long gowns. It can be seen that the west wind is gradually moving down the wind and customs.
【Baiyun Kai Temple】
After the sixteenth month of the first month, there is no factory, and people swarmed to Baiyunguan. On the 17th and 18th of the first month, the Baiyun View Temple Fair was extremely prosperous
Shopping the temple fair is the Spring Festival custom of Beijing. Because there was no factory Dadian after the sixteen of the first month, people swarmed to Baiyunguan. Baiyun Guan was built in Jin, originally Tai Chi Palace, and Changchun Real Qiuji plane stayed here. On the first day of each year, Baiyun Guan opened the temple to recruit tourists until the 20th. On the 17th and 18th of the first month, the Baiyun Guan Temple Fair was extremely prosperous. Taoism believes that the eighteenth month of the first month is the day of the immortality of heaven. They either fantasize for tourists or beggars, and those who meet they can get rid of their illness. There are many Huangguan Taoist sits sitting under the gallery to obtain it; the people also scrambled to come here to find Fuze, so the car and horses are not leaked, which is called “a god”. In addition, there is an activity of “Money Eye”. Tourists use copper coins to watch a few big money near a stone bridge in the stone bridge, and the hitter will be good for the New Year. However, there are more money -throwing people, few people throw, and there are few copper plates under the bridge. The 19th was “Yan Jiu Ji”, and it was also very lively. The scale of Bai Yunguan is quite large. There is also an elderly hall in the viewing of the old Taoist. Among them, there are often people over the age of one year.
【Lantern Festival Lantern City】
With the beautiful colorful light decoration and background, the transition ceremony from the old year to the New Year has basically been completed.
The Lantern Festival, also known as the Yuan Festival or Lantern Festival, is the last grand holiday in the Spring Festival. The fifteenth view of the first month originated from the ancient sacrifice of the Taiyi God, and then combined with the custom of Buddhist lantern, which continued to this day. In the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the lamp festival in Beijing was the largest. From the 13th to the 17th, every family hangs lanterns. The history of the lantern market has a long history, and the Tang Dynasty had records that the lantern market in the Liangliang of the Song Dynasty was very lively. The Lantern Festival lamp market is equipped with lamps. Among them, the goods are available from jade jewelry to daily necessities, but the lights of various colors should be a well -deserved focus of the lantern market. They are mostly made of gauze glass and other materials. They are fine in workmanship, unique shapes, and rich types, such as square lamps, hexagonal lamps, octagonal palace lamps, and rectangular pairs. There are various themes of lanterns, with plant flowers, ancient and modern stories, as well as riddles for people to guess. Various conceived fire -spark guns are also indispensable elements of Lantern Festival. Around the Lantern Festival, men, women, and children went out to enjoy the lights, watch fireworks, and watch juggling. With the beautiful colorful light decoration and background, the transition ceremony from the old year to the New Year was basically completed. Since then, the lively atmosphere of the Spring Festival has begun to dissipate, and people must calm down from the carnival and slowly return to normal work and life.
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