In Korean costume dramas, there are often some “self -halo” male and female protagonists who report to the house, which is “two descendants of the two class”. Like the “Blue Blood Noble” like Europe, a look of an expression is not the same.

Where is this “two -class descendant”, why is it so sacred, and why is it so “crazy”?

What is two classes?

The so -called “two classes” are actually the meaning of “two classes of civil and military”. The place in North Korea also learned to be China. When I was in the dynasty, the monarch sat in the north to the south. Standing a lot,

Wen’s name is Wen Ban, Wu Ban’s name is Wu Ban, and it is two classes.

These two classes can be said to be the backbone of the ruling class. They have political privileges (qualified to be officials for generations) and economic privileges (exempt from the field, exemption of service). When others see them, they must respect the phrase “Two Penny” (Nii, which is the Korean master, the meaning of adults). From the Wang’s Goryeo to the Li’s North Korea, these people are an important role on the ups and downs of the Peninsula on the ups and downs of the Peninsula.

Above_Gallians royal family

The two classes of the Korean dynasty are ups and downs

The word two classes first appeared during the Wang’s Goryeo period. “Goryeo History”, the first year of Taizu (AD 918) Jiawu:

“Xi Yu Yu Ting, Culture and Martial Arts Congress”

左右朝鲜政局近千年的“两班”,都是什么人

Essence The two classes here simply refer to civil and military officials. In the early years of the Goryeo dynasty, the civil and military officials were scattered. Officials are founding heroes and local pride. People outside of them are called “人 people”, and their careers are limited, and politics is basically monopolized by the “two classes” composed of these nobles.

These big guys dangled in the middle of the dynasty, swayed, and engaged in a contributor to politics. The tail is big, and in the long run, it is a great threat to the kingship.

左右朝鲜政局近千年的“两班”,都是什么人

So when Goryeo’s grandson, Goryeo’s sixth generation Wang Gaoli Chengzong, he learned China and started the imperial examination system.

Of course, the imperial examinations here are not the general imperial examinations of the Song Dynasty, but the imperial examinations that do not shake the nobility of the nobles in the Tang Dynasty. After all, reforms must be stabilized, and we cannot pull the eggs. The aristocratic children, through the “private science” of the imperial examination school, got a good result in the exam, so they opened the imperial examinations and added pressure to the nobles, but people are still the group. Speaking, ordinary children, and those school district children who have eight foreign languages ​​and ten tuition classes from elementary school, PK, is really difficult.

Above_Galliagulia official diagram diagram

However, after such a one, it is still a bit good for the royal family. That is, the style of Chongwen has been made. The status of civilians has greatly improved. The royal family is in the need to maintain their own rule, and continues to lean towards the lightwen.

左右朝鲜政局近千年的“两班”,都是什么人

The reality of the two classes is the “Wen class”.

左右朝鲜政局近千年的“两班”,都是什么人

Later, the Goryeo Dynasty had a “civil and military scattered title” system, and the status of the class was higher than the general. Later, the “Shiba system” was an official -level salary system, and the civilians also grew high.

In this way, in the long run, the generals would not do it. Lao Tzu led his soldiers to fight, and he was born and died. Finally, in 1170, the general Zheng Zhongfu launched a coup, and Goryeo entered the era of military official dictatorship.

The martial arts fighting can be used, and the governance of the country is relatively experienced. Those literati are enemies and cannot be used anymore. Therefore, during the period of military official dictatorship, local township officials were promoted in large quantities, and the tribute of the miscellaneous service was held. The threshold of the “two classes” nobles began to be broken.

Above_Guidongxing Province (the situation of the Yuan Dynasty and Goryeo 1330)

Later, Gaoli was defeated by the Yuan Dynasty and became a subsidiary of the Yuan Dynasty. As a result of the Yuan Dynasty, some translators, medical officers and other translators and medical officers who were originally low. Because they were close to Mongolians and were reused, they were promoted to high.

In this way, the scope of the “two classes” was greatly expanded. It turned out that it was just some nobles. Now a bunch of people who are not looking at it have become members of the “two classes”. The two classes became “mixed with fish dragons”.

The aristocracy should maintain the aristocratic identity, and what they want is the identity of high above. This identity is best determined by the blood, and it is given by God. “The prince will have a kind of Ning Ning”. This is the banner of Chen Sheng and Wu Guang. Therefore, the ruler cannot allow the situation of the identity of the shaking ruling class to continue.

Above_Le Chenggui (1335-1408), Li Chao’s founding king

The reform of the Li’s North Korea, the two -class class of solidified

So, by the end of the Yuan and early Ming Dynasty, Li Chenggui overthrew Korean Gaoli and established a major reform of the two -class system when the Li’s North Korea was established. How to do it?

左右朝鲜政局近千年的“两班”,都是什么人

First of all, people with the identity of the township officials and officials are removed from the “two classes”.

In the eyes of the nobles, these technical bureaucrats have no way to compare them with these “emperors nobles”. Wen Ban aristocracy reads the sages of Confucius and Mencius, which is about the principle of the Qi family governing the country. Other people with specific technical tasks such as other witch medical musicians will no longer be regarded as two -class aristocratic people. The outer Yitian of the township officials was canceled, the punishment law of the township officials was formulated, and the hometown of the township officials was established. Strict supervision of it.

Second, comprehensively implement the imperial examination system that is conducive to the two classes.

In a class, to have vitality, we must first have a sense of crisis. In terms of management, a catfish effect is that the fisherman is afraid that the fish that comes up will die, so he will throw a few random catfish inside. Make fish activities, you can’t die. Therefore, Li Chao made such a catfish to strengthen the imperial examination and give you a sense of crisis. Li Chao stipulates that only the children of officials above the three grades can be shade, and the rest of the officials must take the exam. Go and go well.

The picture above_S Korean dynasty (1392-1910), also known as the Li’s North Korea, referred to as the Li Chao

So, will Li Chao ’s imperial examinations cause social flow like the Chinese imperial examinations and disintegrate noble politics? No, the imperial examinations of Li’s North Korea are mainly divided into sciences, martial arts, and miscellaneous sciences. Among them, they can be a big official, and the “two classes” are mainly liberal arts. In the liberal arts examination, the court set up a card in the identity review. The children of the township officials must be “four ancestors review” and “two classes recommendation”. To participate in the liberal arts examination, they also take more “four books”. The government agrees.

and,

Li Chao’s checkered, the so -called “sin”, that is, the son of the little concubine, the son of the second marriage, and the illegitimate son, none of them can take the science and science.

In this way, the scale of the “two classes” aristocracy is greatly limited. The so -called things are rare, noble nobles, few people are expensive.

The imperial examinations of North Korea seem to have no registration restrictions on ordinary people, but Hanmen students need to board the Division and the first, which is more difficult than China. Because North Korea’s official studies are basically noble schools. The two classes entered the book hall at the age of seven or eight, and then entered the Seoul Fourth Studies. After completing the examination of the students, they will enter the average pavilion. Essence Where can ordinary people compete with these second -generation officials from elementary school?

Above_Lesson North Korean official

This is not enough. In order to ensure the continuation of the two classes of nobles, they also engaged in “don’t try”. The regular imperial examinations are once every three years. “Don’t try” the time is uncertain. Ordinary scholars are too late to rush to the examination room. Basically, they are the “two classes” children with news. Over time, don’t try more and more. The Li’s dynasty is nearly 600 years and officially 163 times. Don’t try 581 times.

In this way, the imperial examination road is basically a monopoly between the two classes. China

左右朝鲜政局近千年的“两班”,都是什么人

“Dai is Tian She Lang, Xi Deng Tianzitang”

左右朝鲜政局近千年的“两班”,都是什么人

The situation basically does not exist in North Korea.

Through such a means, Li’s North Korea has drawn out a relatively stable upper ruling group, which is two classes. Li Chao substantially divided people into four class. The first class is two classes, the second class is the so -called Chinese person (that is, the vocational duties of the township officials), the third -class person (ordinary people), the fourth -class chef (slave, prostitutes, etc.). The second and third -class people are very difficult to rise, and there is no hope at all.

左右朝鲜政局近千年的“两班”,都是什么人

Above_Re Li’s official uniforms

The “two classes” of the rich country

Two classes at the top of the food chain are naturally many benefits, and have various privileges of duty -free free service. Through various legal and illegal means, it has occupied a large number of fields.

The Minister of North Korea, the government, and the government, the government, supported the government, and once made the Ming Dynasty as a messenger. Before the death, the “division of wealth” left to the children, with a total of 2312 fighting (ancient North Korea -area units), about 70 hectares. The two classes also possess a large number of domestic slaves. Li Mengxian, deputy in Hongwen Museum, and in 1494, he explained 752 slaves in his family.

Scholar and party contest

Li’s North Korea respects Cheng Zhu Li, which is the official ideology of the country and the main content of the imperial examination. Both children of the two classes are noble masters. They do not produce. In order to obtain the reputation and continue their family business, they are reading the sages of the sages on weekdays and studying Zhu Zijun’s nature. Learning, there will be different opinions, different schools, and arguing with each other. When these people enter the officialdom, different academic views will cause different political opinions. In addition, complicated interest relationships have formed a variety of party gangs to attack each other.

The two classes are basically the family, and the grudges of the elderly will continue until the next generation.

Therefore, the North Korean dynasty was 600 years old, and the party struggle continued.

In the early days, there were old -fashioned factions and Shilin factions, and there were Eastern Party and Western Party in the back. The faction that lost power in the party’s struggle sometimes is uprooted, and the family is copied and asked, and it was killed a large area.

Picture above_East State Map of the East State

The proliferation of “two classes” -the whole people are two classes in two classes

However, this system of scratching people, three or six nine, etc., has begun to disintegrate with the development of the times. Many old two -class aristocratic people have lost their political struggles, or their children and grandchildren are not small, and they are unrestrained and gradually declined. In some, the civilians even have a bitch, and they will get rich through various means such as business. If people are rich, they want to have a little identity and make a official level or something. Guangzong Yaozu -they also want to become two classes.

In the late Ming Dynasty, when Toyotomi Hideyoshi invaded North Korea, due to the state’s fiscal deficit, the court began to start a seller. Many people with low status, but people who are entangled in their waist, they spend money to buy a

“Zhongshunwei”, “Zhongzanwei”

The official titles have become two classes. With the decline of the Korean dynasty, the court issued a “empty name”, more and more “Na Su Tie” seller, “two classes” became more and more bad, and more and more people were.

Above_Tori Toyotomi Hideyoshi (March 17, 1537-September 18, 1598), formerly known as Kimita Teng Jiro and Yu Chai Hideyoshi

Above_A Japanese invasion of Yongzong Town, North Korea

The decay of the government also caused the chaos of administrative management. By the 19th century, in the late period of the Korean dynasty, officials were lazy and affected, and a large number of household registration files were lost. You are a good person, a bitch or a two -class. No one checks it at all, and no one cares. As a result, there are two money in the countryside. If you read a book, you will chant a few crooked poems. He also said that he is the generation of generations of scholars and two classes. Some people forge the family genealogy, saying that they are a certain official, and they are also two classes.

At the beginning of the 20th century, when Japan swallowed North Korea, he engaged in a census. In fact, 80%of North Korea’s population said that he was “two classes”, but at this time, the two classes had flooded to no sense.

author:

Big lion

Correction/Edit:

Lilith

Reference materials:

[1] “North Korea’s” Two Class “Studies” Park Jinkang Yanbian University 2015

左右朝鲜政局近千年的“两班”,都是什么人

[2] “On the” Two Classes “and their cultural characteristics of ancient North Korea” Pan Changhe and He Fang Dongjiang Academic Journal 2010.3

[3] “Discussion on the Social System of the Social System of the two classes of the Korean Li Dynasty” Wang Hongde Cultural Education Information 2011.7

The text is created by the team of History University, and the picture comes from the author of the online copyright to the original author.

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