The Western Regions is a very general name, similar to what we now call the West, that is, the Western world in the minds of the Chinese people in the Han Dynasty. It can start from the border of the Han Kingdom; But there is no hard and fast standard.
In ancient times, the transportation was not developed, international exchanges were limited, the Han and the northern nomads were close, it was inevitable that the lid of the pot would touch the pot and spoon, and fight from time to time, but with the nomadic tribes and countries of the West, it can be said that there were few exchanges in the early stage, far apart, often separated by the Xiongnu, out of reach of each other, and there was no possibility of large-scale conflict between the two.
It was not until the time of Emperor Wudi of Han, for the sake of border peace, that the emperor personally conquered the Xiongnu, and after nearly half a century and five major wars, the security risks of the northern frontier were completely eliminated, and the conditions and basis for opening up the Western Regions were obtained. Therefore, Zhang Qian later sent an envoy to the Western Regions to conduct a thorough investigation of the countries of the Western Regions, and only then did the mystery of the Western Regions be unveiled.
Based on Zhang Qian’s data, Ban Gu, a historian of the Eastern Han Dynasty, briefly introduced the situation of the countries of the Western Regions in the Book of Han compiled by himself, summarizing the existing regimes in the Western Regions at that time into 36 countries.
In fact, history is developing, the situation is changing, and the so-called 36 countries can only be said to be the situation in a specific historical period. Wars between countries have been going on, and the number and territory of countries are not static.
Moreover, the so-called country, there are large and small, the large is equivalent to a city, the small is only a town, or even a village, to describe them as a country, a little exaggerated, rather than tribe is more appropriate. In order to make it easier for everyone to understand, it is appropriate to call them countries.
The thirty-six kingdoms recorded in the history books are:
First, the country of Che Shi, also known as the Gushi State, is specifically located in today’s Turpan Basin, which was the vanguard of resisting the Han Dynasty, with the most stubborn and resolute attitude.
Therefore, the gun shot the head bird, and the spearhead of Emperor Wudi of Han was first pointed at the country. A policy of dismantling and dividing them was adopted, and one dovish regime after another was fostered, and the country’s hawks lost power and were no longer able to wage aggressive wars against the Han.
The country of Che Shi was divided into four countries: first, the former kingdom of Che Shi, second, the country after Che Shi, and third, the state of Che Shidu. Fourth, the city of the Che division is long.
5. The State of Puli, today’s Puli County, later changed to Tashkurgan Autonomous County, has a population of only 1,800 people and an area of less than 100 square kilometers.
6. Pu Guo, an ethnic group active in the waters of Balikun Lake in Xinjiang, is a brave and tenacious ethnic group with a population of about 3,000 people, and the Tang Dynasty once set up Pu County, which is today’s Balikun County in Hami City, Xinjiang.
7. Wusun State was a great power in the Western Regions, located in several counties near present-day Ili and Chabchar Xibo counties in Xinjiang and in present-day Kazakhstan.
VIII. The country of Wuqiang is a desolate place, either desert or mountainous, there is almost no place to cultivate, and the people live on nomadism. The original site of the state of Wuqiang was located in Ruoqiang County, in the southeast of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, under the jurisdiction of Bayingolin Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture.
9. Shanshanguo, on the ancient Silk Road, was rich in water and grass, cattle and sheep, and its capital was in Feni City (near present-day Ruoqiang, Xinjiang). It was bordered by Dunhuang to the east and to the west, west of present-day Lop Nur.
10. The Last Country, a small country of 2,000 people, whose name has not changed from ancient times to the present, is Xinjiang and Mo County.
11. Xiaowanguo is a veritable small country with a population of less than 1,000 people, not as large as a natural village in the hinterland, located south of Xinjiang and Mo County.
12. The elite country, with a population of three thousand, yes, is the small country in the tomb robbery novel.
13. The country of Rong Lu, next to Xiaowan country, is also a small country standing side by side, located in Minfeng County, Xinjiang.
14. The Kingdom of Khotan, this is a very famous country, with a long history, existing for more than 1,000 years, is a giant in the Western Regions countries. This country has a relatively long history, and its location is the Hotan area of today’s Xinjiang.
15. The country of Celle is also a small miniature country, in the area of today’s Celle County and Yutian County in Xinjiang.
16. Quli Country, in the territory of today’s Korla City in Xinjiang, is also a standard small country with a population of 2,000 people.
17. The State of Yutou, located in present-day Ahaiqi County, Xinjiang.
XVIII. The country of Pishan, which produced wool and camels, was also very numerous, and the people were prosperous, and it was later destroyed, and its location was in today’s Pishan County, Xinjiang.
19. Xiyeziheguo, originally called Xiyeguo, and the king was called Zihewang, so it was collectively called Xiyeziheguo, in the territory of today’s Yecheng County, Xinjiang.
20. Shache Country is also a small authentic country, and the place name is still used today, that is, Shache County in today’s Xinjiang.
21. Mine-free countries, their territory is in the Pamir Plateau in the southwest of Tashkurgan County in Xinjiang.
22. Yinai State, with a population of more than 2,000, has no fixed place to live, likes to wander everywhere, and is active in the territory of Puli, which is the area of today’s Tashkurgan County.
XXIII. In the country of peach locust trees, there are no peach blossoms, no locust flowers, but there are large grasslands, herds of cattle and sheep. With a population of more than 3,000, there are 600 people in the armed forces.
24. Drug-donor countries have Persian genes, and their area of activity is west of the Kashgar region of Xinjiang.
25. The location of the state was in the western part of present-day Aktau, Xinjiang.
26. Wuying Kingdom, a paradise, an indisputable country, because it is a small country in the Kunlun Mountains, located in the Karakoram Mountains south of today’s Yecheng County in Xinjiang.
27. Wulei State, legend has it that the Han Dynasty general Huo Qubing conquered the Kunlun Tai Kingdom, and then installed a regime here, which is the origin of the Wulei State, which is located in Luntai County, Bayingolin Prefecture, Xinjiang today.
28. Shanguo, the territory of Shanguo was in the southwest of present-day Turpan County, Xinjiang. The national capital is in Moshan City. There are only 450 households, and the population is about 5,000. The army consisted of a thousand people. People in the country can’t build and there are no developers, so they can only inhabit caves, hence the name Mountain Country.
29. Yanqi State, located in Yanqi Hui Autonomous County in the Tarim Basin of Xinjiang, is also called Wuyi and Ani.
30. The country of danger, the birthplace is in Heshuo County, Bayingolin Prefecture, Xinjiang.
XXXI. The country of Guzi, one of the largest countries in the Western Regions, with a population of 100,000, fertile land, abundant rain, prosperous people, horses and sheep; In today’s Kuqa County, Xinjiang. Later, the Anxi Dadu Protectorate set up in the Tang Dynasty was located here, and the music of this place was also famous.
XXXII. Gumo Country, the country is a small country with a population of about 1,000 people, in the area of today’s Wushi County and Wensu County.
33. Wensu State, which is today Wensu County, belongs to the Aksu Prefecture of Xinjiang.
34. Weili State, its location is in the area of Weili County, Bayingolin Prefecture, Xinjiang.
35. Shule State, whose center of activity is in Shule County, Xinjiang.
XXXVI. The Southern Capital Kingdom, its birthplace is just south of Jimu County. It is a rich land, and according to the messengers, the average life expectancy here is more than 50 years, which is a veritable land of longevity.
It should be pointed out that the above thirty-six countries of the Western Regions are only a relatively narrow concept, and Iran, Arabia, and Europe, which cannot be reached by the Han Dynasty ruling forces such as the rest of the green ridge from their west, are still the Western Regions in a broad sense.