As we mentioned before, diabetes itself is not terrible, terrible is the complications caused by diabetes, so the key to diabetes treatment is to prevent the emergence of symptoms, and the key to prevention is to strictly control blood sugar, of which hypoglycemic drugs are essential. Today we will talk about the common drugs for diabetes.

1. Oral hypoglycemic drugs

1) Sulfonylureas: insulin secretion-stimulating agents, mainly used in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes, the most common adverse reaction is hypoglycemia. Commonly used clinically are gliclazide, glimepiride and so on.

2) Glinide: also belongs to insulin secretagogues, mainly by stimulating the early secretion of insulin to reduce postprandial blood sugar, suitable for patients with high postprandial blood sugar in type 2 diabetes, the most common adverse reaction is hypoglycemia. Commonly used clinically are repaglinide, nateglinide and so on.

3) Biguanide: It is the first-line drug for type 2 diabetes, which can be used alone or in combination with other drugs, and the most serious side effect is lactic acidosis. The commonly used drug is metformin.

4) Thiazolidinedione: mainly suitable for patients with type 2 diabetes, especially those with obesity and obvious insulin resistance. Commonly used drugs are rosiglitazone, pioglitazone and so on.

5) α glucosidase inhibitors: suitable for patients with significantly elevated blood sugar after meals, can be used alone or in combination. Commonly used drugs are acarbose.

6) SGLT2 inhibitors: reduce blood sugar by increasing the amount of urine glucose, can also reduce glycated hemoglobin, a common side effect is urinary tract infection. Commonly used drugs are dapagliflozin.

2. Insulin: according to the characteristics of onset, it is divided into ultra-short-acting, short-acting, intermediate-acting, long-acting, ultra-long-acting insulin and premixed insulin, common insulin glargine, insulin aspart, insulin detete, recombinant human 30/70 insulin, etc. Clinically, it is often seen that diabetic patients are particularly resistant to insulin, thinking that taking insulin is addictive, and once it starts, it can’t stop, of course, this statement is completely wrong. Insulin is mainly used in type 1 diabetes, gestational diabetes, patients with serious infections or wasting diseases, and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with poor hypoglycemic effect of oral drugs, insulin can not only quickly and effectively reduce blood sugar, but also has little impact on the patient’s liver and kidney function. The most common side effect of the drug is hypoglycemia, so it is necessary to monitor the patient’s blood sugar when using it, adjust the amount of insulin according to the monitoring results, and gradually reduce or stop it, so there is no addiction.

3. New hypoglycemic drugs: including GLP-1 receptor agonists (such as liraglutide) and DPP-IV inhibitors (such as sitagliptin), mainly suitable for patients with type 2 diabetes, the former has a certain weight loss effect on obese patients.

4. Other drugs: At present, traditional Chinese medicine is more and more recognized by everyone, and the latest version of the 2020 diabetes guidelines clearly emphasizes the important position of traditional Chinese medicine in diabetes prevention and treatment. As a recommended drug for the guide, Jinlida granules can invigorate qi and nourish yin, strengthen the spleen and transport jin, and have a good effect on the symptoms of thirst and polydipsia, polyuria and hunger in patients with type 2 diabetes.

There are many types of diabetes drugs, it is recommended to use drugs under the guidance of a doctor, and strictly follow the doctor’s advice, do not stop or adjust the drug by yourself.

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