Riesling is a white grape variety in Germany’s “national treasure” and one of the most fragrant grape varieties in the world. The wines produced often have aromas such as lemon and citrus. The taste is delicate and delicate. With gasoline flavor. Lei Ray is also a versatile grape variety, which can cause refreshing dry white and sweet white, but also cause expensive rot wine and ice wine.

1. The origin of the grape variety of Ries

Lei Ray is one of the oldest varieties in Germany. Historical documents in 1435 recorded the planting of Raying Rheinau’s production area. At present, the exact origin of Commander Lei has not yet been concluded. Many scholars believe that Commander Lei may originate in the Rhein high -yield zone, and some scholars believe that Commander Lei may originate from the production areas such as Alsace, because the literature in 1348 records the records record The growth of Commander Ray in Alsace.

In 1998, DNA testing found that Gouais Blanc was the pro -book of Commander Lei. White Gauvis is one of the oldest grape varieties in Western Europe, and has a blood relationship between Chadonnay, Gamay Noir, Elbling, and Furmint.

2. The difference between Commander Lei and Wales Lei Ray

Commander Ray is often mistaken for the command with Welschriesling, Riesling Italico, Australia’s Clare Riesling, and Cape Riesling in South Africa (Gray Riesling) in South Africa (Gray Riesling is the same grape variety, in fact, they have no relationship between them.

The names of Commander Lei in each country are different. They are called Rhine Riesling in Australia; they are called Weisser Riesling in South Africa; they are called Johannisberg Riesling in California.

3. Features of Rays Ray Grape and Wine

Lei Ray is a kind of aromatic white grape variety with high acidity, strong cold and frost resistance, which also makes Commander Ray the first grape variety known as cold production areas. Leading Ray has grown strong and very dynamic. Even if the output is as high as 10 tons/hectares, its grape quality can still maintain a high level. Lei Ray is small, usually late in the cold production area, and is susceptible to botrytis.

Leading is early in the warm climate, and the wines produced are usually bland and simple, not exquisite and complicated. In cold areas, Commander Lei has a long maturity period. ), Can cause dry white, sweet white, expensive rot, and ice wine. On the whole, the fruit flavors are concentrated and acidic condensed. Xiang, etc., at the same time, high acidity makes the aging potential.

Leader’s wine is usually low in alcohol, light wine, exquisite structure, and is not suitable for oak barrels. Therefore, it has also become one of the world’s most delicate white wines. After the bottle of Commander Lei, Chen Nian will evolve a very delicate aroma. This aroma is mainly derived from the compound TDN. TDN is a derivative of Norisoprenoid. The content in wine is usually lower than the detection threshold, but it can bring a more complicated sense of layering to the wine. After 2-3 years, the content of TDN is relatively increased, which shows a certain amount of kerosene flavor.

4. Classic Ray Command wine type

The harvest time of Commander Lei is large, and it is easy to dye the expensive rot bacteria, which can cause four main types of dry white, sweet white, expensive rot wine and ice wine.

(1) dry white

: With strong aroma of lemon and citrus, the taste is more delicate and delicate. It is most famous for Commander Clare Valley and Eden Valley. In addition, the production areas such as Alsace, WACHAU, KamptAl, and Kremstal in France also produced high -quality Lei Danbai in the production areas. In Germany, Commander Lei Bai usually marked “TROCKEN” on the wine label.

(2) Sweet and white late

: After the Ray Command is mature, it does not harvest immediately, but will continue to keep the grapes with drying the wind and the dryness of the vine before harvesting and brewing. Riesling Night Collection sweet white usually has charming flowers, peaches, citrus, and honey. The taste is elegant and delicate. Due to the residual sugar and high acid sufficient to balance, the old potential is large, such as the late wine picking wine in Germany (Spatlese) and Auslese and so on.

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(3) Wine of expensive rotten wine

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: Leading Ray is susceptible to expensive rot bacteria. The precious rot wines that have been produced with osmanthus, locust and fruity aroma, with rich aromas such as nuts, preserved fruits, honey, and vanilla. The potential has huge potential and can be preserved for hundreds of years. Well -known wines include: BEEEENAUSLESE and TrockenBeenauslese (TrockenBeenauslese), and Alsace’s grain -by -grain selection of expensive wines.

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(4) Ice wine

: After the Ramen hangs on the vine and wait until the temperature is below minus 7-8 ° C, it is harvested and brewed. Ice wine has strong honey and floral fragrance, sweet and moving, huge potential, well -known wines: Germany and Austria ice wine.

5. Well -known production area of ​​Commander Lei

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(1) Germany

Lei Ray is the “national treasure” grape variety in Germany. From the end of the 19th century to the middle of the 20th century, the German Ries Commander has been widely praised and the planting area has continued to improve. By the 1960s, the global heavy wine and oak flavors were popular in the world. During this time, Commander Lei was left out, and the quality of the wine became uneven. By the end of the 20th century, the German Ramen wine re -stood on the stage with a total planting area of ​​about 23,000 hectares. It has been planted in various production areas in Germany and can cause dry white, sweet white, expensive rot and ice wine, such as Mosel (Moser ( Mosel), RHEINHESSEN, RHEINGAU, PFALZ, Nahe, and Wurttemberg and other well -known production areas.

① Moselle

Mosel is one of the top Lei commanders in Germany. Its vineyard is built on a steep hillside facing south. The unique slate soil can absorb the heat of the solar and reflect the sunlight, which makes the Ray Command grapes mature. At the same time, the wet fog in the morning of the Mosel River, and the sufficient light at noon, provided ideal environmental conditions for brewing expensive rot wine. The planting area of ​​Raysur’s Ray is about 5,400 hectares. The co -produced wines often have the flavor of fire stones and minerals. The wine is lighter, the acidity is high, and the taste is refreshing and not greasy.

Well -known winery

: Weingut Egon Muller, Weingut Willi Schaefer and Martin Kerpen. The Riese Commander produced by Yimu Winery enjoys the reputation of “the King of Ries of Germany”, especially the most precious selection wine and ice wine. Ice wine. And withered wines are shocking high prices at each year’s auction.

② Ryin Gao

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Rhein Gao is the top German -level Lei Commander wine area with Moselle. Although the grape planting area is only about 2,500 hectares, more than 80% are the Ray Command. Most of the Rhein -high vineyards are located in Assmannshausen and Wiesbaden on the north bank of the Rhine. They can enjoy the sun bathing south and enjoy the south. Compared to Mosel, Rhein Gaura Commander has stronger wine style and condensed, and the body is fuller.

: Schloss Johannisberg, Robert Weil, Schloss Schonborn, Georg Breuer, and Weizut Josef Leitz.

③ Rhein Heisen

Rhine Heisen is located in the Rhine Valley, adjacent to the Nahe River in the west, and adjacent to the Rhine in the north and east. Rhein Heisen is the largest wine producing area in Germany. The soil type is mainly red sandstone. At the same time, it also has certain aging potential.

Rhein Hesson’s most famous export wine is “Mother of the Virgin”. Nearly 99% of the 167 villages are brewed, and the wine accounts for 50% of all Germany’s imported wines.

: Blue Nun (Sichel, which has a history of more than 200 years, was created by Sichel in 1921. It was once the largest wine brand in Germany. Lan Xiangu has become a low -quality and low -cost brand.

④ Falz

The planting area of ​​the Riese of Farz is about 5,500 hectares, accounting for 20%of the total planting area of ​​the producing area, but the Ray Command has a very important position in the production area. Farz is close to the Alsace area in France. The climate is relatively mild and the light is relatively sufficient. , But lack of exquisite and delicate sense.

: Dr. Von Bassermann-Jordan, Bolklin Wulford

Dr. Burklin-Wolf, Okonomierat REBHOLZ, and Muller-Catoir.

⑤ Nahe

The micro -climate and geographical environment of Nahe’s production area have changed. The planted Riesling only accounts for about a quarter of the total grape planting area in the production area, but the Riese wines that have been produced have excellent balance. Compared to several other producing areas, Nahe is not particularly well -known, but the quality white quality of Lei in the production area is very commendable.

: Weingut Donnhoff, SchlossGut Diel, and Schafer Frohlich.

(2) Alsace, France

Alsace is the only producer in France to use Lei as a legal brewing grape variety. Among them, Commander Ray is also the most widely planted grape variety in Alsace, up to about 3,400 hectares, accounting for about 20%of the total area of ​​vineyards. Essence Alsace belongs to the cool mainland climate. The grapes have long mature time in autumn, sufficient sunlight, low rainfall and rich soil to lay the foundation for the brewing of the top Leading wine.

Different from the Light Lei Commander in Germany, Alsace Wine is the most famous with Raydam’s dried white wine. This wine has a very attractive fragrance, a very dry taste, high alcohol content, full of alcohol, and high acidity. With obvious mineral flavor, the terroir characteristics of the production area are undoubted. At the same time, Alsace’s dry climate minimizes the risk of Raydou grape rotten, which fully guarantees the maturity of the grapes, which has also created high -quality late -harvesting sweet wines (VENDAGE TARDIE) wine.

: Hugel & Fils, Maison Trimbach, and Domaine Zind-Humbrecht.

(3) Austria

Austria is one of the few countries that can produce high -quality Lei Commander wine. Its Riestel has a planting area of ​​about 1,900 hectares and is the second largest white grape variety in China. Austrian Riese wine is mostly dry and unique in flavor. It is one of the most exquisite wines in the country. At the same time, the Ray Command is also brewed in Austria. Wawa Valley in LOWER AUSTRIA, as well as neighboring Capu Valley, Krems Valley and Burgenland.

Wathaus Valley

: Lei Commander is the second largest white grape variety in the Wahao District. Most of them are planted on a very steep hillside height, and the soil is mainly barren tinge rock and granite. The Riese wine in the Wawa area is lighter than Gruner Veltliner, and the taste is rich, and the acidity is more authentic. The aroma of Commander’s wine is very complicated. It has both the aroma of honeysuckle and apple flowers, as well as the aroma of mature peaches and lime. The aftertaste also has a long salty mineral flavor.

Kaipu Valley and Krems Valley

: Making wines that are similar to the quality and style of the Wahao Valley, but the price is usually more close to the people.

Buganlan

: Located in southeastern Austria, weighing sweet wines with outstanding production quality, such as BA, TBA expensive rot wine and ice wine.

: Weingut Kracher, Brundlmayer, Hirtzberger, and Schloss Gobelsburg.

Well -known winery

Well -known winery

Well -known winery

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Well -known winery

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Well -known winery

Well -known winery

(4) Hungary

The planting area of ​​Commander Lei in Hungary is about 1,300 hectares, mainly concentrated in the production areas such as Kusag, CSONGRAD, and Tolna in the south. Leading in Hungary can cause dry type and can cause sweet wine.

Well -known winery

: Bussay, OTTO Legli, and Jozsef Szentesi.

(5) Italy

The planting area of ​​Commander Ries in Italy is only about 600 hectares, mainly concentrated in the colder Alto Adige and Friuli production areas. Idgee’s argument is fragrant and charming and very delicate. It agrees that most of the white wine style is huge. The Ray Commander wine produced by Frifiri is also excellent in quality.

: Kuenhof Di Peter Pliger, Schwanburg and Jermannn.

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(6) Spain

The planting area of ​​Commander Lei in Spain is very small, only about 100 hectares, mainly concentrated in the production areas such as Catalunya and Castilla-La Mancha. The Spanish Commander’s delicateness and refinement are poor, far less than that of Germany and Austria, so the international awareness is insufficient.

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(7) Other European countries

Czech Republic

: The planting area of ​​Leading is about 1,200 hectares. It is mainly planted in the Morava production area and southeast provinces in the south.

Slovakia

: Located in the north of Austria, it belongs to the continental climate. Its Riestel has an area of ​​about 1,000 hectares. The quality of the wine produced is better. For example, Egon Muller, Germany, has made excellent Raide wine in Slovakia.

Slovenia

: The planting area of ​​Ray is about 700 hectares, mainly concentrated in Stajerska Slovenija and Prekmurje.

Croatia

: Leading is the 6th largest grape variety in Croatia, with a total planting area of ​​about 1,100 hectares.

Moldova Republic

: The planting area of ​​Commander Ray is about 1,300 hectares, and the quality of wine produced is relatively ordinary.

(8) Australia

In the early 19th century, European immigrants escaped near Barossa to avoid persecution, and also brought Ramen to this place. The planting area of ​​Lei in Australia is about 4,400 hectares, which is the most famous white grape variety except Chardonoli. The Lei Commander is very suitable for the climate of the nearby Claire Valley and Eaton Valley. The quality of the dried Ray Commander produced is also the highest quality, which is completely comparable to the German Ramen.

Claire Valley

: Just one hour’s drive from Barolsa Valley, most vineyards are concentrated at 200-500 altitude. The summer climate is warm and hot. The cool wind will be blown in the afternoon, thereby adjusting the high temperature during the day, effectively extending the grape maturity time. This climate is very conducive to the maturity and maintaining a certain degree of acidity of the thunderic phenol, so that the wine has a certain body and complexity. Claire Valley Commander’s wine is the representative of the dried Lei Ray. The most famous is the brewing style of the oak barrel. The sign is characterized by the vibrant lemon and citrus fruit fragrance and the exciting sour taste. When you are young, the acidity of the Ray often makes the teeth numb, but it is still very attractive and can’t help but want to drink a second bit. After 5-6 years old, the acidity of the jumping of the Ray wine gradually weakened, and the body became more balanced and softened. There will be a round taste in the mouth, which is very delicious.

Eaton Valley

: It is the first production area of ​​Australia. Until now, Eaton Valley is still dominated by the brewing of Lei. Commander Eaton Valley usually has rich fruits such as lime oranges, and at the same time has charming floral fragrance and a little mineral aroma. The taste is rich, the body is delicate, and it is very refreshing. After the old age, the Eaton Valley Commander’s wine can produce charming flavor such as jam, baking and honeysuckle. Good Lei Commander needs to be aged for 10 years to achieve the best tasting time.

: Grosset is located at the southern end of Claire Valley, a well -known wine area in Australia, and is one of Australia’s most outstanding wineries. The Riese wine produced here is a benchmark for the top white wine in Australia. The Gross Winery vineyard adopts organic cultivation method and does not perform machinery operations. It will not be picked until the grape reaches the best maturity. The fine management of the winery retains the original personality of the grapes, which can make the internationally praised and most unique style of wine.

(9) The United States

Lei Ray is planted in the United States, such as California, Oregon, Washington, and New York State. The wine style of each producing area is also different.

California

: The planting area of ​​Command Ries is about 1,500 hectares. Most of the wines produced here are relatively light. However, there are also some wineries produced in the winery. The Chateau Montelena, Smith Madrone, Dashe Cellars, Esterlina, etc.

Oregon

: The cool and cloudy climate is very suitable for the planting of the Ray Command Grape variety. Its planting area is about 340 hectares. The co -produced Ray Command wine is rich in fruit and the taste is more complicated and delicate. However, due to the lack of international markets in Oregon, the amount of planting is far less than Hei Pinotao in the same production area.

Washington State

: It is the most outstanding Ray Command producing area in the United States. The coils produced are rich and delicate, exquisite and delicate, and can be brewed from dry and semi -dry to sweet types. Many German manufacturers and local wineries teamed up with Lei Commander wine. The quality of the wine is getting higher and higher, and it has also been recognized by consumers. As a result, the planting area has continued to increase. From 770 hectares in 1999 to 2,560 hectares in 2011 It has been more than three times.

New York state

: The planting area of ​​Command Ray is about 270 hectares. Most of the wines produced are sweet and have excellent quality.

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(10) Canada

Canada is another important production area for Commander Ries Ice wine. In 1794, the winemakers in Franconia, Germany, accidentally inventing ice wine. Until the 19th century, the winemakers in the Rhein high -yield area began to make ice wine consciously. It can be seen that Canada is the birthplace of Riesbon ice wine. In addition, Commander Lei is also made of dry white wine, and its taste is more delicate and sour.

(11) New Zealand

The planting area of ​​Commander New Zealand is only about 490 hectares in 2001, and now it has increased to about 920 hectares. Lei Ray is the third largest grape variety in New Zealand in addition to long acacia and Chardonnia. The Ray Commander produced from dry, semi -dry to sweet types, including Marlborough and Nelson, etc. The production area is the most famous. Today, New Zealand’s Late’s late collection sweet white quality is getting higher and higher, occupying its own place on the world stage.

: Dry River, Forrest Estate, Framingham, and Palliser Estate.

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(12) Argentina

The planting area of ​​Commander Lei is only about 110 hectares, which is mainly concentrated in the Mendoza production area. The climate here is more suitable for the planting of the Leader. Highlight, lack of delicateness.

(13) Chile

Chile does not plant Ray Lei. The planting area is only about 30 hectares. It is mainly distributed in the CONO SUR of Bio Bio and the Cousino near Santiago. Macul) vine garden.

(14) South Africa

The planting area of ​​Lei in South Africa is about 220 hectares, mainly concentrated in Stellenbosch and Robertson production areas. The top Ramen wine comes from very cold production areas such as Constantia, Elgin, and Swartberg.

6. In the past 20 years

In the 1950s and 1950s, Germany’s Ries Commander was popular all over the world with high residual sugar and cheap prices. However, in the past 20 years, German producers have carried out many innovations on Commander Lei. The quality is getting better and better.

(1) Increase dry white brewing

: More and more wineries are aware that the sweeter and better, but the dry -type Riese wine can better reflect the characteristics of the variety and the characteristics of the terroir.

(2) Increase the brewing of treasures

: The collection of wine can be a dry type or a semi -dry type. Usually the fruity aroma, delicate and delicate taste, and low alcohol. “Schloss Vollrads) Dr. Rowold Hepp said:” The low alcohol accuracy of collective wine can bring a pleasant feeling, it will not cover the flavor of food, and it can bring consumers true Sex, pleasure, variety and year -specific specificity “. Today, treasures are increasingly loved by young consumers.

(3) Improve the quality of the Ray Command Sket

: Germany’s Sekart is a very popular kind of sparkling wine in the world. More and more wineries are determined to use the “traditional method” to brew the high -quality Sett for sparkling wine.

(4) Try to use oak barrels to aggressive thunder commander

: Weingut Von Winning for the first time put the 2008 Riese wine into oak barrels. Many wineries also started to try this method. Lei Ray wine.

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(5) Improve the quality of high -quality sweet and sweet Ray

: Germany’s best -quality sweet -type commander wines mainly include BA, TBA and ice wine. Today, many wineries are committed to improving the quality of selected wines and other sweet wines. Among them, Markus Molitor’s selection of wine was made from the full score of Robert Parker.

7. Ries Ray Wine Meals

(1) Commander Ray

: The drinking temperature is suitable for 10-12 ° C. It can be matched with seafood, sushi and vegetable salad, and can also be matched with Xiangxiang and Sichuan cuisine. Stewed crab flour, Zhejiang cuisine’s Longjing shrimp and steamed sea bass of Cantonese cuisine.

(2) Commander Lei received sweet white in the evening

: Drinking temperature should be 8-10 ° C. It can be matched with spicy food, fruit platter, lobster, scallops, fish, butter, crab, foie gras, and goat cheese.

(3) Commander Rayson Rotten Wine and Ice Wine

: Drinking temperature should be 6-8 ° C. It can be paired with desserts such as cheese, apple pie and caramel desserts.

Red Wine Encyclopedia, China’s leading wine new media, WeChat public account: wikiwine.

Well -known winery

Well -known winery

Well -known winery

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