Metal tires are commonly known as “Jingtai Lan”. Its manufacturing process is made of metal (mainly red copper, a small amount of gold) as tires, and a thin and thin metal wire is welded on the surface of the metal tire to form patterns, and then filled in the application. Various enamel materials, then baking, gold -plated and polishing and other processes. The finished products are heavy and gorgeous, and the enamel is colorful and colorful.

The silk enamel process was originally “imported”. It should be that the Chinese craftsmen’s “big food kiln” production technology on the Arabian Peninsula should be developed on the basis of Yuanming and developed on it. In the Ming and Qing dynasties, the enamel process was valued by the rulers. The Ming Dynasty Royal Supervisors and the Qing Dynasty Construction Office both set up workshops specifically for enamel for royal systems. As a result, although the enamel craftsmanship has not developed in China for a long time, it quickly matures and forms its own national characteristics, which has become a major category of court crafts.

Qing Qianlong’s silk enamel Cup Palace Museum Collection

There are more than 4,000 metal tires in the Palace Museum, which are colorful and dazzling. Since the Yuan and Ming dynasties, the enamel works of each period have been prepared here in the late Qing Dynasty. This article will pick one of the most of the collections and choose the most representative works in the dynasty to appreciate the Tibetan friends.

Ming Xuande’s silk enamel entangled pattern pattern and support for the Palace Museum Tibetan

At the end of the Yuan Dynasty

At the end of the Yuan Dynasty and the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, the glazed enamel glaze was delicate and clean, and the surface was crystal, red, blue, purple, grass green and other color enamel. During this period, most of the patterns are tangled lotus patterns, the flowers are huge, the branches and leaves are thick stretching, the layout is sparse and generous, and the small buds of small buds are lined with orientation.

Ming Hao Rites Enamel Flower Eat Jade Pot Spring Bottle

Imperial monitoring manufacturing

27.1cm high, 7.4cm caliber, 9cm foot diameter

Qing Palace Old Tibetan

This bottle is created by the Ming Royal Supervisor. The glaze is fine and the color is pure. The bottle wall was polished smoothly. Its decorations are a variety of flowers in one device, and the stars are dotted.

Yuan Zi Rites Enamel Twin Lotus Lotus Ding -type

28.4cm high, caliber 17.1cm

The patterns of silk enamel wares in the Yuan Dynasty were decorated with the theme of the blooming tangled lotus. Its characteristic is that the tangled lotus flowers stretch the fullness, the branches and leaves are thick, and the buds are lined with small buds. The pattern layout is sparse, and the silk lines are unrestrained. The enamel is delicate and clean, the glaze is bright, and has a crystal -like transparency, especially the colors of grape purple, grass green, and yellow yellow are more dazzling, as if they are fired with imported enamel glaze. This furnace is a masterpiece of silk enamel wares in the Yuan Dynasty.

Yuan Zi Shao Enamel Twitter Lotus Elephant Ear Morry

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The height is 13.9cm, the diameter is 16cm, and the diameter is 13.5cm

This furnace is dignified and thick, and enamel is bright and elegant. It is a masterpiece of enamel craftsmanship in the Yuan Dynasty. The copper -plated double elephant of the furnace, the bile of the furnace, and the feet of the furnace, the furnaces, are all blended in the back, and it is a re -modified device.

In the early days

Filament enamel entangled lotus pattern plum bottle

21cm high, 4cm caliber, 5.5cm foot diameter

This bottle is dignified, with a pure glaze color and a glass texture. Its craftsmanship is exquisite and delicate, and the leaf patterns are penetrated by penetration to express the details of the branches and leaves from green and yellow. The pattern on the upper and lower string of the shoulder is obviously damaged, and the dark shades of the glaze are also different. Obviously, the shape of two old ware imitation porcelain plum bottle is re -combined. The bottom of the bottle is plated, and the “year of the Jingtai” model. This bottle is a masterpiece of the Emperor Royal Supervisor in the early Ming Dynasty.

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Silk enamel entangled lotus pattern dragon ear bottles

36.8cm high, caliber 10.7cm, a diameter of 12.9cm

This bottle of enamel glaze is rich in color and strong, especially the crystal green glaze is like jade. The detailed view of the bottle, the abdomen and neck connection use the method of adding a raised lotus petal pattern due to the inconsistent caliber. Combining the connection between the upper abdomen and the lower abdomen, it can be seen that the bottle of the neck, upper abdomen, and lower abdomen are made from the local stitching of several old instruments. The gold -plated flying dragons on both sides of the neck can cover the traces of stitching and make the whole device glorious. Bottle bottom Jingtai consciousness should be engraved at a time modification.

Ming Xuande

At present, the earliest knowledge of the era of silk enamel is Xuande products. During the Xuande period, the silk enamel enamel enamel color was pure, rich, calm, and the surface was gentle, but compared with the enamel in the Yuan Dynasty, the crystal -like transparent effect had been lost. The tangled lotus pattern is still the main decorative theme, and follows the style of the Yuan Dynasty.

Ming Xuande’s silk enamel entangled lotus tattoo out of the halberd

28.4cm high, a caliber 16.4cm, a diameter of 9.6cm

This dignified and generous, the glaze is clear, and the gold -plated is heavy. Only out of the halberd and the bottom.

Ming Xuande’s silk enamel dragon and phoenix line

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23.5cm high, 37.5cm caliber, 36cm bottom diameter

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This furnace color is pure and the enamel is crystal clear.

Ming Xuande’s silk enamel lion pattern double land chessboard

The height of 15.7cm, 53.3cm long, 33cm wide

This device has a regular shape and novel ornaments, especially the seven lions on Panbanjin is vivid and lively. This kind of enamel pattern that is rare in the early days shows the new development of enamel craftsmanship. It is currently known that this is the only one handed down.

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In the middle of the Ming Dynasty

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In the middle of the Ming Dynasty (mid-15th century-early 16th century), the production of copper tires’ silk enamel wares produced some new changes in the leaf patterns and enamel. In addition to the wrapped lotus pattern, the hippocampus pattern, the lion drama pattern, and the flower and bird pattern are also quite popular. The silk lines are more slender, and the pattern layout is dense. Most of the works have low surface gloss or no gloss, and the increased sand eye reflects the decline in enamel quality.

In the middle of the Ming Dynasty, copper tires, enamel lion drama ball hippocampus bowl

10cm high, caliber 22.2cm, foot diameter 9.1cm

After the middle of the Ming Dynasty, the pattern decoration of the silk enamel ware became more and more diverse. Although the tangled lotus pattern is still the main decoration, the patterns of various Swiss beasts also generally appear, and the layout is increasingly stubborn. The inner and outer walls of this bowl are decorated with animals as the theme. It is a Jingtai awareness.

In the middle of the Ming Dynasty, the silk enamel eight lion pattern three -ring respected

28.7cm high, a caliber 21.4cm, a foot distance 15.6cm

This device is a post -change device. The welding marks are obvious in the splicing site. The upper is the original device. The color difference between the upper and lower glazes is obvious, and the bottom of the Jingtai model. This device was brought out of the palace by Pu Yi, mortgaged to Tianjin Salt Industry Bank, and later recovered for the Forbidden City.

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In the middle of the Ming Dynasty, the silk enamel lion drama tattoo hidden grass bottle

20cm high, 7.5cm caliber, 8.2cm foot diameter

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The enamel glaze of this bottle mouth, neck, and body is different, and it is a device that is struggling. The bottle -belly lion drama is very skilled in the ball pattern, the enamel is rich in color, but the characteristics of early light and translucent in the early days are lacking. The bottom of the Jingtai New Year. The grass bottle is a contribution used by Tibetan Buddhism. Such utensils reflect the Ming royal family’s worship of Lama and maintain a close relationship with Tibet.

Late

After the mid-16th century, my country’s silk enamel wares have undergone unprecedented changes, represented by the works of the Ming Wanli period (1573-1619). This change is mainly manifested in the manufacturing of the “bionic” shape of the enamel ware; the increase and application of enamel color varieties; the popularity of various auspicious patterns and religious themes. In addition, the pattern decoration of silk enamel wares during this period is more popular with double -line outline techniques.

Ming Jiajing’s silk enamel dragon and phoenix pattern plate

5.1cm high, caliber 24.2cm, foot diameter 16cm

The original original information is not available. Although most of the glaze and gold have been corroded, this device is the only domestic metal tire enamel standard device with clear metal tires in China, which is precious.

Ming Wanli silk enamel 掐 end

Tong high 36.5cm

The Duan Duan is a kind of deity in ancient Chinese legends. For example, the emperor is the monarch of Shengming, and the sanctuary is holding the book, and the guard is on the side, so the end of the crafts is often set on both sides of the throne. This device can also be used as a incense burner. There is a button under its head, which can turn the head to turn on and built -in incense. Inside the head, there are six -character model “Daming Wanli Years” in the head of the head.

Ming Wanli silk enamel eight treasure pattern rectangular furnishings

Tong ear height 9.1cm, cover 26.8 × 14.4cm

The bottom surface 25.5 × 13.2cm

The rectangular fume is not rare. This furnace is based on white enamel as the ground. The main ornaments of the eight treasure patterns and the characters are the main patterns, which reflect the style characteristics of the silk enamel technology of the Ming Wanli years. The form and decorative patterns of the bottom of the device have the characteristics of the standard of silk enamel wares during the Wanli period.

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Ming Wanli silk enamel double dragon bead pattern flowers

8cm high, 51.8cm caliber, 31.8cm foot diameter

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This disk is huge, with skillful craftsmanship, beautiful decoration, and exquisite craftsmanship. It has a Wanli model under the gold -plated film of the Jingtai model. This set is the most representative silk enamel work during the Ming Wanli period.

Tomorrow’s silk enamel cricket -style incense smoke

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20cm high, 17.3cm long

This device has a beautiful shape, light body, and has a rich shape on the back. The center is square hole. Animal -shaped enamel wares appeared in the late Ming Dynasty, but it was rare.

Tomorrow’s silk enamel Fu Shou Corning character round box

10cm high, 16cm caliber, 11.4cm foot diameter

This box is decorated with pine, bamboo, plums, Gou Lian, ganoderma and miscellaneous treasure patterns. The decorative content of the enamel ware with auspicious text was initially appeared during the Ming Jiajing period. In the same period, this decorative theme began to be popular in porcelain and lacquerware.

Early

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The enamelware of the Qing Kangxi Dynasty can represent the development of the silk enamel process in the early Qing Dynasty. In the early days of Kangxi, the silk enamel articles made by the Ming Dynasty imperial monitoring in the palace were mainly made for model enamel works. After continuous practice and accumulation experience, the enamel color of the utensils was pure, smooth, and thin and regular. Affects the development of later enamel craftsmanship. After the 19th year of Kangxi (1681), with the setting of enamel, the royal silk enamelware began large -scale and standardized production.

Qing Kangxi’s silk enamel entangled lotus pattern spherical flavor

Made in enamel in the Internal Affairs Office of the Internal Affairs Office

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Diameter 16.2cm

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This incense is manufactured by enamel works in the early days, also known as the “suspension stove”. The large, medium, and small axis of the large, medium and small shafts connected in the inside, which makes the total instrument that is suspended from the third ring center center. Can maintain a balanced state. This furnace enamel glaze is elegant, slender, and smooth, obviously different from the style of enamel in the Ming Dynasty.

Qing Kangxi’s silk enamel chrysanthemum stone pattern small round box

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2.9cm high, 8cm caliber, 8.3cm foot diameter

This box is elegant, and the picture is simple and bright, which is rare in the early clear enamel ware. This device is a standardized enamel in the Kangxi period.

Qing Kangxi’s silk enamel entangled lotus tattoo bold bottle

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12.3cm high, 1.2cm caliber, 6.7cm abdominal diameter, 5cm foot diameter

This bottle style, pattern, and glaze color are imitated “Jingtai Royal Enamel”, but the silk is slender, the pattern is clear, and the earth is slightly darker. It is different from the enamel products of the Ming Dynasty. Essence

Qing Kangxi silk enamel enamel dragon pattern heating box

5cm high, 14.7cm long, 11.5cm wide

This heating box can be hot or charcoal, so that the ink on the box does not freeze in winter. The shape of the box is elegant, the decoration is regular, the light blue glaze is more pure, and the craftsmanship has been improved compared to the early Kangxi.

Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty

Emperor Qianlong’s preference for metal enamel wares can be described as an unprecedented achievement in the production technology of metal enamel wares in China, and has achieved unprecedented achievements. At that time, the main origin of enamel wares was the most famous in Beijing and Guangzhou. During the Qianlong period, the number of silk enamel wares was large, and the shapes were continuously refurbished, and their uses were very wide. During this period, the enamel manufacturing process was excellent, the formation was regular, the wall of the fetus was heavy, and the gold was plated. The “brilliant, heavy and solid” Qianlong dynasty silk enamel ware showed the solid national strength of the Qing Dynasty.

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Qing Qianlong’s silk enamel brocade flat pot

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12.4cm high, caliber 3.8cm

This flat pot is imitated with the Warring States Period bronze, and the shape of the ware is unique. Its glaze is pure, brocaded, and golden. This is the exquisite device made by the enamel work during the Qianlong period of the Qing Dynasty.

Qing Qianlong’s silk enamel shepherd pens

15cm high, 16cm long, 7.8cm wide

The shape of this enamel pen rack is novel and unique, the glaze is stable, the silk is uniform, the golden light is brilliant, and it has high artistic value. It also belongs to the representative silk enamel works during the Qianlong period.

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Qing Qianlong’s silk enamel out of the halberd 觥 觥

The height is 11.4cm, the length is 13.5cm, and the foot diameter is 7 x 5.2cm

The front part of the lid is the beast head, the body is shaped, the whole body is covered with blue enamel glaze, the silk cloud lightning pattern is the ground, the top is decorated with red and the blue pheasant pattern; This device is made by the Qianlong period of the Qing Dynasty.

At the end of the Yuan Dynasty

Imperial monitoring manufacturing

Imperial monitoring manufacturing

Imperial monitoring manufacturing

Imperial monitoring manufacturing

Imperial monitoring manufacturing

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Imperial monitoring manufacturing

Qing Palace Old Tibetan

Qing Palace Old Tibetan

Qing Palace Old Tibetan

Qing Palace Old Tibetan

故宫馆藏:精品景泰蓝24件

Qing Palace Old Tibetan

Qing Palace Old Tibetan

Qing Palace Old Tibetan

Qing Palace Old Tibetan

Qing Palace Old Tibetan

Qing Palace Old Tibetan

Qing Palace Old Tibetan

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Qing Palace Old Tibetan

Qing Palace Old Tibetan

Qing Palace Old Tibetan

Qing Palace Old Tibetan

Qing Palace Old Tibetan

Qing Palace Old Tibetan

Qing Palace Old Tibetan

Made in enamel in the Internal Affairs Office of the Internal Affairs Office

故宫馆藏:精品景泰蓝24件

Made in enamel in the Internal Affairs Office of the Internal Affairs Office

故宫馆藏:精品景泰蓝24件

Made in enamel in the Internal Affairs Office of the Internal Affairs Office

Made in enamel in the Internal Affairs Office of the Internal Affairs Office

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