Wang Yangming, a philosopher in the Ming Dynasty, once said: “If you want to consciousness, you must have no ax, you must go out of the rules.” China also has a saying: “Bold and small, wise, and desire.” It is necessary to follow the rules and be meticulous, but under certain circumstances, we must learn to change all, and we must not be rigid dogma.

In the operation of all things in the universe, the Chinese summarized the path of yin and yang, and the place of Tianyuan could not escape such a dialectical framework. It is manifested in various traditional culture and arts, and in the end, it is the sage of saints who know and know the knowledge of the same way, and then realize the unity of knowledge and action.

Western Zhou Bronze Chase (Palace Museum Collection)

“Fang” is regular, “round” is the resolution, the unity of the two is “Zhiyuan Xingfang”, and it is also the basic philosophy of the Chinese people’s life

大到建筑,小至钱币,天圆地方渗透在古人的艺术生活

In the traditional society, “no rules, no square”, when the urchins are not obedient, the elders will use this sentence to warn them. The rules are composed of rules and torque. The rules are round rules. It can be used to draw a circle, and the torque is for the square. It can be used to draw a rectangular rectangle. Essence For example, in some Han Dynasty portrait stones, Fuxi and son -in -law can often be seen with a moment and a rule, which are generally interpreted as a mythical image. Why raise them in their hands? It may be because of the rules and the square and the circle, which constitutes the world of thousands of worlds.

The so -called square circle is not necessarily just intuitive square and round. In traditional Chinese culture, they are more like a concept, and their connotation has infinite richness and relative nature. Generally speaking, Fang has the characteristics of static, rules, and principles, while Yuan has the characteristics of dynamic, overall, completeness, and flexibility. Fang is figurative. It is like a farmland. It is a thing that can be touched. If the observation only stays in the square, it will be stagnant in the shape. It must be entered from the square; Beyond the figuration is the flow of life that is deeply contained in all things. “Mencius Lou Lou” said: “The rules are the rules, the square is the same; the saints, the people of the humanity.” Fang Yuan, on the one hand, represents the induction of all people in the past, and on the other hand, it must be connected with the humanity. This is different from the ancient Greeks’ concepts. The ancient Greeks believe that mathematics exists from others, and the Chinese think that Fangyuan eventually has to implicate with humanity. This is also directly reflected in our words. For example, “Fang” is regular, “round” is more of the response, and the unity of the two is “Zhiyuan Xingfang”, which is also the basic philosophy of the Chinese people.

The ancients often said that from Fang to the circle, it was to be transcended from the figuration, from the appearance to the deeper, so as to appreciate the purpose of the humanity. In the philosophy of the Oriental people, Fang Yuan must complement each other as the yin and yang, and the reality, and the change should be changed, or the changes should be changed. If there is no circle, it is stubborn. If there is a circle, it is not standing. It can be said that the theory of Fangyuan is the essence of Chinese culture, and it also penetrates all aspects of the ancient artistic life.

大到建筑,小至钱币,天圆地方渗透在古人的艺术生活

Jade cricket

The Mingtang architecture in ancient ritual system symbolizes the place of Tianyuan;

In ancient China, the form of heaven and earth was often summarized as the place of Tianyuan. It was manifested in symbols and images as a symbol of the cosmic mode. In addition, people in the past generally believe that the heavens and the earth are will, and the behavior of people should learn from the heavens. Out of this concept of heaven and earth, since the Shang and Zhou Dynasties, there has been a tradition of “making instruments”. The so -called “elephant” is to create various utensils in accordance with the image of heaven and earth, which reflects a cultural concept that symbolizes the universe. Just as “Zhou Li” records the rectification of the referees, the shape of the ingenuity, the shape of the ingredients is like the sky, called “the square of the puppet, and the image of the earth; The Liu Ren occupied and Taiyi nine official occupied disks unearthed from Shuanggu Duki Han Tomb, Fuyang, Anhui are composed of the upper and lower parts. The upper plate is round and can be rotated. The plates are all square with twenty -four positions, which is the embodiment of the space view of the sky.

Tianyuan originated from the ancestors’ intuitive feelings of the sky, and the expression of this feeling can only be used by metaphors or symbols. When it is square, it is as regular as the fields of the field. However, this metaphor often has a typical philosophy of Chinese culture, which cannot be theory of simple geometric forms. For example, the “Book of Dai Dai Rites” edited by the Western Han Dynasty Dede recorded that Zeng Zimen asked Zengzi Shanju: “The saint says that the sky is round, the earth is square, is there really such a matter?” Zeng Zi said, “If heaven said It is round, the ground is square, so the round sky cannot hide the four corners of the earth. “Zeng Zi said:” I have heard Confucius say that the heavens are round and the authentic is square. “Tianyuan Place Here is a symbol of humanistic significance from geometry to a symbol of humanistic significance.

The recovery map of Mingtang in the Han Dynasty

On the one hand, ancient buildings must consider the practicality of human settlements, and on the other hand, Tiandi Lun often uses the rules of design. Typical Mingtang architecture in the ancient ritual system is symbolizing the place of Tianyuan from the appearance. Set, flowing water. Settlement of cosmetics, living in their own rooms. Spring shirts are lonely, Xia Jinxian. Autumn Liwu people, Dong Jin Guan Liang. “” Dai Dai Rites “contains . In the nine rooms, there are four households and eight, thirty -six households, and seventy -two. “Huainanzi · Main Surgery Training” contains: “The system of Mingtang has a cover and no square, the wind and rain cannot be hit, the cold and summer cannot hurt. The sacred space of the four o’clock and the month of the month, worship the king and the five emperors “. Its shape is designed in the shape of the ancients in the minds of the ancients.

Interestingly, the ancients never forget the relationship with the square when they conceived the circular space. Take jade as an example. The decorations described by a large number of jade tadpoles unearthed in the sacrifice pit of the Han Dynasty are not a complete continuous pattern along the circle, but the inner ring carved puff patterns and the outer beast noodle pattern. At the same time In this area, they are coherent and form a circular pattern. This means that the Han Dynasty people look at the round shape. In fact, what is seen is Fang. This kind of cosmic view can be simplified into a graphic of the outer circle and inner parties, which fits the concept of the four elephants of the Han Dynasty. White tiger, Suzaku, and basalt, that is, the four gods later. We see that the sky is round, but in the eyes of the ancients, there are four corners of the circle of heaven, representing four orientation. This circle is not the abstract circle of geometry we imagine, but has four different positions and each represents a circle of different meanings. There are similar bloggers in the Han Dynasty, the inside of the outer circle, which constitutes the four parties and eight districts of the back of the mirror, and the Swiss beast pattern is distributed in which the “TL” pattern is opposite to each other.

大到建筑,小至钱币,天圆地方渗透在古人的艺术生活

Jade

大到建筑,小至钱币,天圆地方渗透在古人的艺术生活

This kind of square consciousness naturally affects ancient buildings, and pure circular buildings are almost impossible to develop, because the ancients attached so much attention to the four directions, so that in many symbolic sense, these four directions were implemented in the later period to ethics. above. In the four directions of east and west, the corresponding Qinglong, White Tiger, Suzaku, and Xuanwu are not only integrated into the building, but also a part of people’s spiritual life. Fang not only represents the earth, but also represents the living environment of people. Many natural phenomena such as the sky cannot be understood, and they can be summarized into a circle.

The circle is the concept, and the square is reality. These space consciousness has evolved into the Ming and Qing dynasties that are more integrated with painting art to form garden aesthetics. Chinese gardens are the halls of comprehensive art. Horticulture and square circles are dependent on each other and permeate each other. For example, the door of the scene is generally made into a round or fan -shaped, because the circular shape can make the gardens form a kind of fantasy picture, and most of the stacks are given to people. The impression is because they are the basic elements of the garden scene, and they also mean the character’s character. When we go to Suzhou to observe those classical gardens, we will understand how the ancients make the natural terrain become clumsy with square circles. The architectural structure or square or round shape, some are built, and some are straightforward, so that the square circle echo each other. In the end, the landscape of the garden is the same as the jade of the loop. It looks very layered, just like the clouds in the sky. The form of the square combines the humanistic mood, so that the original small building has been given the good humanistic taste of the goodness of the spirit of the vast literati spiritual world. The small world, the square circle, the profound meaning of the building space far exceeds its architectural size.

大到建筑,小至钱币,天圆地方渗透在古人的艺术生活

Jiangnan Garden (Vision China)

Ancient coins, Fang Zhi and arc lines, which are fused with the local shapes of the sky, are all integrated with Fangyuan philosophy.

The most typical representative of the square shape on the utensils is undoubtedly ancient coins. In the past, currencies such as shell coins and ant nose money were often out of line. In the end, Qin Shihuang unified measures, text and currencies, which made Qin Ban’s preliminary maturity of ancient Chinese coins. It is an important milestone in the development of Chinese currencies. It has extraordinary historical significance. In terms of form, Qin Ban two laid the shape of the ancient round square holes and became the basic form of ancient currency in my country. It runs through the feudal society of the entire China and has been in use for more than 2,000 years.

大到建筑,小至钱币,天圆地方渗透在古人的艺术生活

This kind of currency that blends the local shape of Tianyuan is a symbol of the Qin people’s destiny imperial power. Also, the essence is complicated, and there is nothing to stay. Alas, the prescription of the ministers, the square is not easy, the country is the Chang. “The ruler of the Qin Kingdom believes that the outer circle symbolizes the destiny and the inside represents the imperial power, so they determine the standard of the coin as the shape of the outer circle, which symbolizes the monarch to the world in the world. , Emperor power first. Fang represents the place, and the outer circle represents the Tianyuan, and the round square hole symbolizes the cosmic view of the ancient Tianyuan place in my country. Of course, there is another interpretation of square holes. In fact, the circular square holes may also be the need for production and processing at that time to facilitate the needs of carrying, circulating and storage. Half two money and the square holes on all ancient coins in the later generations, due to the casting process at the time, the shape of the coins cast was irregular. In order to process and polish in batches, the holes in the coins must be made into squares. In this way Inserting the gifted stick will not rotate when grinding.

Ancient coin

Ming -style furniture is also one of the best utensils that can reflect the combination of squares. May wish to take the circle chair as an example. The name of the circle chair is obtained by the back of the back. The Song people call it “sample”. In the Ming Dynasty’s “Three Talents”, it called it a round chair. The back of the circle chair and the handrail goes down. Unlike the official hat chairs, there are steps of steps, so sitting on it, not only do the elbow lean on, but also the arms under the armpit are also supported. The bending of the upper part of the circle chair is both eye -catching and implicit, making the sitting noodles feel spacious and covered. The co -gangs are not used, and the proportion and position of the inverted component form a perfect balance, making the overall shape unusually light; in addition, the tube foot under the chair surface is the same as high, forming the pot structure and the seats make the seat look stable and solid.

So how does Fang Yuan form a beauty on furniture? When you look closely, the lines on Ming -style furniture are the basic conditions for generating rhymes. For example, the “Wu Bai Dangfeng, Cao Yi out of the water” described by Guo Zichu in the Song Dynasty, just like the expressiveness of Chinese calligraphy and painting art. Above the line. The charm in Chinese art is different from the rhythm of the West, and the latter stays in the form of the line itself, while the former is surpassed the line and pursue spiritual freedom. Wanli is Yuan, Qing Gao is Fang. In the basic constituent units of Ming -style furniture, the lines of Fang Zhi and the arc occupy a very important position. Taking the circle chair or the official hat chair as an example, each component blends the form of a variety of lines, straight lines, arcs, S -shaped curves, oblique lines, etc. These lines are based on square and round geometric forms. They all have the rhythm and vitality of the jumping rhythm and vitality , Present the pen and ink image of Chinese calligraphy, either upright and beautiful, or a wave of twists and turns, showing vivid charm.

大到建筑,小至钱币,天圆地方渗透在古人的艺术生活

Chair

In addition, the purple sand pot is undoubtedly a large integrated utensil for Fangyuan philosophy. In the traditional Chinese ceramics, the purple sand device that does not apply glazing pays more attention to the artistic effect of plain faces than porcelain; in the purple sand shape, the square and the circle are the most basic expression elements. The structure is the most flexible geometric shape. From the appearance, the pot body is the organic combination of various curves. It is rich in the aesthetic principles. The combination of squares and rounds has become the most wonderful combination of purple sand.这方面最具典型代表的器型便是传炉壶,传炉壶的整体造型呈四方,鼓腹饱满,棱角淡化呈圆鼓状,三弯流胥出,壶鋬耳形,与壶流相呼应Essence The lid of the pot is densely fused with the lid type, with a square corner, thick and solid on the lips, and the lid surface is flat and slightly dome. This type of device has a circle in the square, the circle in the circle, the proportion is uniform, and the pearl is round and jade. The shape of the purple sand device is concise, and the use of lines, lines, and surfaces is essential, focusing on its elegant and simple beauty. The treatment of the curve should be the beauty of the curvature and softness, showing the purple -sand arc structure, and the treatment of the square folding cannot be rigid and rigid. These seemingly simple square structures have also become the artistic source of art given the pot personality by the craftsman.

Purple sand pot

In the traditional writing, the structure of the Chinese character structure is generally outer and the inside, which is matched with the balance of balance in the art of calligraphy.

大到建筑,小至钱币,天圆地方渗透在古人的艺术生活

Fang Yuan philosophy has an infiltration of ancient Chinese art, and the examples of calligraphy are equally typical.

Many people say that the Chinese characters of the Chinese are square characters. This statement is more for the printing body. In traditional writing, the structure of the Chinese character is generally the inner side of the outer circle. The direction and length of the lines are the basic form of the ancient people’s handling of space in the process of making the word. From the perspective of calligraphy, the same word changes in the direction due to the left and right margins, so that the respective forms of their respective forms tend to be rounded and back, back, open and closed. Similarly, the length of the line can also cause the space to differentiate. The two characters change in length due to the vertical painting on the left and the two horizontal paintings on the right of the right, so that the font has a tendency to connect and break, separate, and the combination. Visual trend. Calligraphy art emphasizes the balance in imbalance, so that the lines of the lines reflect the rhythm and rhythm of its flow in the change, the characteristics of the inner side of the Chinese characters, and the beauty pursuit of calligraphy art, such as Fang Bi cut off, is refreshing, and it is refreshing. Gives the sense of rigidity and spiritual exposure inside, and the round pen is full and full, giving people a sense of rigidity and implicit temperament. The inside of Chinese characters produces an overall balance and harmony, and the outer circle can form an artistic effect of immovable flow and infinite changes. It also ensures that the writing of the writing can be continuously open, making the writing process more in line with the essays of humanity. freedom of.

Huang Tingjian Calligraphy

大到建筑,小至钱币,天圆地方渗透在古人的艺术生活

Taking Huang Tingjian’s calligraphy in the northern Song Dynasty as an example, the inner and outer parts of the knot were loose, and each word almost stretched the strokes to the four sides. At first glance, the east is crooked, but the words are firm and the rules are harmonious. Huang Tingjian’s pens broke the rules that have been collected since Jin and Tang, and became free of lines. When he wrote a wonderful place, he was proud of himself. His postponed Su Dongpo’s “Huangzhou Cold Food Poetry Post” is a god, and he is also very satisfied. He said, “He east slopes may see this book, and you should laugh at me without Buddha.” The proud words overflowed with words. The inside guarantees that the art of calligraphy will not go to the situation where there is nothing and no skeleton, just like Yu Shinan, one of the four people in the early Tang Dynasty, said in “Bioline Theory · Qimiao”: “If the water is in the square ? And the somewhat metaphorical water, Fangyuan metaphorical characters, the same as what is regarded, and different from far and near. “It can be said that the Chinese calligraphy is a circle composed of the center point as the center point, and then it forms an infinite change that has been dispersed from a little bit. Image symbols. As Fang and Yuan make up all the ways and character, Chinese characters are no exception.

Author: Liwei

Edit: Fan Xin

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