Consciousness

Author: Fei Xiaotong

[Editor’s note: “Cultural Consciousness” is the first time that Mr. Fei Xiaotong was first proposed in the second senior seminars of social cultural anthropology at the Institute of Sociology and Anthropology of Peking University in 1997. The purpose is to cope with the inevitable development of global integration. And proposed a way to solve the relationship between people and people]

In recent years, I have often talked about the problem of “cultural consciousness”. Specifically, this term was in the second senior seminars of sociology anthropology held in Peking University in 1997. However, the source of thoughts can be traced back to the history. I think everyone knows that the mainstream of Chinese thought in the first half of the 20th century has been developing around national identity and cultural identity.

The long -term arguments about Chinese and Western culture that appear in various ways are in the final analysis. In the final analysis, under the strong impact of the West, can modern Chinese people continue to maintain their original cultural identity? Or must you recognize Western culture? In the last two generations of Chinese intellectuals, they were trapped in arguments about Chinese and Western cultures throughout their lives. The familiar Liang Shuming, Chen Yinque, and Mr. Qian Mu are all among them.

At the age of 70, I started the research of sociology anthropology and entered the second academic life. When I first proposed “Cultural Consciousness”, I did not see any crisis of Chinese culture from the comparison of Eastern and Western cultures, but first came into contact with this problem in the field research of ethnic minorities.

At the end of the 1980s, I went to Oleonchun, Inner Mongolia to live in a survey. This nation is a nation that has been living in the forest for a long time. For generations, a culture of the environment suitable for the forest area is mainly engaged in hunting and deer raising. In the past century, due to the decline of the forest, it has threatened the survival of this small nation with only thousands of people.

At the end of the 1990s, I inspected another Hezhe tribe who had only thousands of people and was dominated by fishing and hunting. There are 22 “young people” below 100,000 people in China. How can they survive for a long time in the major changes in society?

Especially after entering the information society, the culture has changed so quickly, and they have the problem of how their own culture is preserved. I think only the way of seeking living in cultural transformation. We must be good at giving play to the specialties of the original culture and seeking the survival and development of the nation. It can be said that cultural transformation is a common issue of human beings.

Therefore, I said that the concept of “cultural consciousness” can be seen from small, and from the people with a younger population to see the common problems of the Chinese nation and even all humanity. The significance is that people living in a certain culture must have “self -knowledge” about their culture. Understanding its origin and the process of formation, the characteristics of its own, and its development trends are to strengthen the ability to strengthen cultural transformation. Get the autonomous position that adapts to the selection of new environment and culture in the new era.

In fact, after the global integration of the economy, what should Chinese culture do is a realistic issue raised by social development and the first problem that we must face the first problem of culture.

I think of the conversation with Chinese culture with Taiwanese anthropologist Li Yiyuan in the last century. I have raised some questions I am thinking about, and think that people who study culture should pay attention to and answer these questions. For example, we often talk about socialism with Chinese characteristics, which refers to the combination of Marxism and Chinese practice, so in Marx in Marx After entering China, it became Mao Zedong’s thought, and later developed into Deng Xiaoping theory. Behind this must have the characteristics of Chinese culture. However, what are the characteristics of these cultures and how to play a role, we can’t tell.

We involved several examples during the conversation. One is to talk about the attention of family ideas and the role of the family. After the implementation of the family co -production contract responsibility system after reform and opening up, the productivity of the countryside suddenly liberated. In the rural industrialization in the future, the real vitality is the family industry.

At the same time, let me think about where the growth ability of Chinese society is, one of the characteristics of Chinese culture, I think it is a understanding of contact between generations. A person doesn’t feel how important he is. What is tight is Guangzong Yaozu, who is a child who has passed on and raised excellent children.

The second is that the practice of “one country, two systems” not only has a political significance, but the two different systems of the two systems in one country can coexist, as well as the meaning of the text. That is to say, there is a force that can condense different systems in the bone of Chinese culture, and the unity of the opposite can appear.

Third, the idea of ​​”pluralism” is also a manifestation of Chinese -style culture. It contains the beauty and beauty of the beauty and beauty. It is necessary to be able to find beautiful places from others and themselves in order In -depth cognition and appreciation of feelings, not for a short -term purpose or what interests.

Only in this way can we accommodate each other and produce cohesion, so that the “harmony and difference” between nation and the country, the combination of peaceful coexistence, and coexistence.

Fourth, you can think of others, not only think of yourself. This is one of the important things in Chinese interpersonal relationships. “The pattern” came out. This is not a virtual thing, it is the true and realistic things that happen to happen in the daily life of Chinese people, and the essence of cultivated from the long culture of China. The “Cultural Revolution” is too bad for this set of damage, denying these things. I see that this cannot be denied, and it is actually impossible to deny it.

We can’t say that the essence of Chinese culture has clearly understood theoretically, but generally speaking, it is indeed the Confucian Confucianism that has always paid attention to “righteousness, sincerity, self -cultivation, Qi family, governing the country, and peace”. The direction pointed out developed.

The layers of it are all experienced things that have accumulated for thousands of years. If you can use realistic things, it seems that it will still have a positive effect. There are many things in our Chinese culture that can solve many practical problems and difficult problems. The question now is how we expressed these characteristics in modern languages ​​more clearly, so that everyone can understand and become a universal consensus.

Last year, the “9.11 incident” in the United States had a great shock to me. In my opinion, this is another serious warning to Western culture, and the development of the situation has disappointed me since then. This “with horror” method of “terror” makes me see that the values ​​of Western culture are too contempt about the spirit of cultural spirit. It is worthy of deep reflection with the spiritual relationship of not being scientific and seeking the spirit of truth -seeking.

Therefore, it also prompted me to further clarify some issues in theory, such as personal and cultural relationships, cultural social and historical issues, etc., in order to promote the in -depth study of Chinese and Western culture comparative research. Can help us deepen our understanding of culture.

We really need to understand the characteristics of Chinese culture and compare it with Western culture. We must return to historical research and work hard to inherit the existing achievements of the previous generation of scholars. Effectively refine the good things in Chinese culture and apply it to reality.

In the process of maintaining contact and exchanges with the Western World, make clear things in our culture and turn it into world -like things.

The first is localization, and then globalization. We must admit that there are good things in Chinese culture, and further study our history with modern science methods to complete our mission of “cultural consciousness” and strive to create modern Chinese culture. On the one hand, we must understand and understand the culture of others, and learn Solving the problem of dealing with different cultural contacts contribute to the tomorrow of all human beings.

About the author: Fei Xiaotong (November 210, 1910 to April 24, 2005), Wujiang, Jiangsu (now Wujiang District, Suzhou), a famous sociologist, anthropologist, ethnician, social activist, One of the founders of Chinese sociology and anthropology, deputy chairman of the Standing Committee of the seventh and 8th National People’s Congress, and vice chairman of the 6th National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference. He was admitted to the preparatory course of Soochow University in 1928, obtained a doctorate degree in the School of Economics and Political Science, University of Economics and Political Science in London in 1938, joined the Democratic League in 1945. In 1982, he was selected as a member of the University of Economics and Political Science of the University of London. At 22:38 on April 24, 2005, Fei Xiaotong died in Beijing at the age of 94.

费孝通:论文化自觉

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